Ecological Development of Rural Areas in the European Union Member States in 2000-2012

Main Article Content

Mariana Vashchyk
Tomasz Siudek

The purpose of research was to analyze ecological development in EU countries during 2000-2012. Six primary variables have been applied, namely: the share of forest area in total land area, emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) in agriculture, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in agriculture, electric power consumption per capita, the share of alternative and nuclear energy in total energy use and the share of area under organic farming in total agricultural land area. The authors have developed a synthetic index, which enabled the statement that Latvia, Finland, Austria, Sweden and Estonia are leading EU countries in terms of ecological development; the worst situation is in France, Poland, Malta, Spain and in the United Kingdom.

Article Details

Jak cytować
Vashchyk, M., & Siudek, T. (2014). Ecological Development of Rural Areas in the European Union Member States in 2000-2012. Zeszyty Naukowe SGGW W Warszawie - Problemy Rolnictwa Światowego, 14(4), 194–204.

Agenda 21 [1992]: United Nations Conference on Environment & Development. Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 3 to 14 June 1992

Bolch B.W., Huang C.J., [1974]: Multivariate statistical methods for business and economics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Dobosz M., [2001]: Wspomagana komputerowo statystyczna analiza wyników badań [Computer-assisted statistical analysis of research results]. Wyd. Akademicka Oficyna Wydawnicza EXIT, Warszawa. [in Polish]

Environmental Action Strategy for Sustainable Development in Italy, [2001]: Ministry for the Environment and Territory, p. 82.

Environmental Indicator Report 2013 Natural Resources and Human Well-being in a Green Economy © European Environment Agency [2013].

European Commission statistics database. [Available at]: statistics/themes [November 2012].

Harman H.H., [1967]: Modern factor analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Heide C. M. van der, [2005]: Economic analysis of nature policy. Zugl.: Amsterdam, Vrije Univ., Diss., 2005, p. 356.

Jajuga K., [1993]: Statystyczna analiza wielowymiarowa [Statistical multivariate analysis].Wyd. Naukowe PWN, Warszawa. [in Polish].

Krutilla, J. V., Fisher A., [1975]: The Economics of Natural Environments. Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press.

Lavlinskii S., [2010]: Public–Private Partnership in a Natural Resource Region: Ecological Problems, Models, and Prospects. Studies on Russian Economic Development, 2010, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 71–79.

Liao Chi-Mei, Li Lan, Yan Zhi-Qiang, Hu Bao-Qing [2004]: Ecological Security Evaluation of Sustainable Agricultural Development in Karst Mountainous Area--A Case Study of Du'an Yao Autonomous County in Guangxi. Chinese Geographical Science. Volume 14, Number 2, pp.142-147, 2004 Science Press, Beijing, China

Millennium Development Goals and beyond 2015 [Available at]:

Morrison D.F., [1990]: Wielowymiarowa analiza statystyczna [Statistical multivariate analysis]. Warszawa PWN. [in Polish].

OECD, [2002]: Aggregated Environmental Indices, Review of Aggregation Methodologies in Use, OECD, Paris.

Ran S, Jin J. [2004]: Evolvement and control of vulnerable ecological region - A Case Study in Ongniud Banner and Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia. Chinese Geographical Science, Volume 14, Number 2, pp.135-141, 2004

Rural Development in the European Union - Statistical and economic information [Available at]:

Rural Development in the European Union. Statistical and Economic Information. Report 2012, European Union, December 2012, 378 p.

Sherbinin A., [2003]: The Role of Sustainability Indicators as a Tool for Assessing Territorial Environmental Competitiveness. International Forum for Rural Development, 4-6 November 2003

Stanners D., Bosch P., Dom A., Gabrielsen P., Gee D., Martin J., Rickard L., Weber J.-L., [2007]: 'Frameworks for environmental assessment and indicators at the EEA', in: Sustainable Indicators: A scientific assessment, Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, Island Press, London.

Tadeusiewicz R., [1993]: Biometria [Biometrics]. Wyd. Akademii Górniczo-Hutniczej, Kraków. [in Polish].

The European Consensus on Development. Joint statement by the Council and the representatives of the governments of the Member States meeting within the Council, the European Parliament and the Commission on European Union Development Policy [Official Journal of the European Union C 46 of 24.2.2006].

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) statistics database [Available at]:

The World bank database [Available at]:

Treaty on European Union.92/C 191/01 Official Journal of European Communities. Volume 35, 29 July 1992.



Download data is not yet available.